1. Why is the Earth is a differentiated body
- denser materials formed near the core
- denser objects rise toward the surface
- the core has a high temperature
- the core has a high pressure
- gravity pulls denser materials toward the core
2. What is the major source of the Earth's interior heat?
- the high pressures of the overlying material.
- the high densities at the Earth's center.
- tidal friction caused by the Moon.
- decay of radioactive elements
- solar energy, which heated the material when it was forming the
3. The Earth's magnetic field is thought to be caused by a
of convection in a molten core and
- charged particles from space falling on the Earth.
- lunar tidal effects.
- the Sun's strong gravitational pull on the Earth's equatorial
4. What causes the aurora borealis?
- electrical storms near the Earth's surface
- electrical storms near the top of the Earth's atmosphere
- by the Moon's tidal effects on the Earth's atmosphere
- solar particles interacting with the Earth's magnetic field and
- unknown electrical effects associated with the subduction zones
5. What statement about the greenhouse effect is true?
- It causes planets to be green.
- It helps cool the Earth and keep it from becoming much warmer
- It is produced by the small amount of ozone in the atmosphere.
- It balances out the effects of the ozone hole.
- It comes about when solar energy cannot escape the Earth's
6. The Earth's primitive atmosphere probably consisted of
- carbon dioxide
7. If the average density of the Earth is 5.5 grams per cubic
but the density of a typical rock you pick up is 3 grams per cubic
what is the most reasonable conclusion?
- The Earth is differentiated.
- There is an error in the statement.
- The Earth's density changes with the inverse square of the
- The Earth's surface consists of large amounts of iron.
- The Earth's interior is mostly molten.
8. The maria regions on the Moon turn out to be about _____ years
whereas the highlands appear to be _____ .(choose best answer)
- 3.5 billion; a billion years older
- 3.5 billion; a billion years younger
- 1 billion; about the same
- 1 billion; younger
- 1 billion; older
9. What are most lunar craters caused by?
- volcano-like activity on the Moon.
- a local collapse of the surface into subsurface caverns.
- equal number of volcanic and impact events.
- crustal movements similar to continental drift.
- impact events from meteoric material.
10. Why are the lunar mare smooth?
- because of continental motions over billions of years
- because of erosion from a primitive lunar atmosphere
- because of past lava flows
- because of erosion from a primitive lunar ocean
- because of the strong tidal effects Earth exerts on the Moon
11. If you lived on the far side of the Moon, how often would you
- once every 29.5 days
- once every 27.3 days
- once every 24 hours
- There is not enough information to answer the question.
12. Fact: the Earth and the Moon have nearly identical relative
of the various oxygen isotopes. What can we conclude from this fact?
- The relative abundances of oxygen isotopes are the same all over
- The Moon was probably formed elsewhere and then captured.
- The Moon formed in the same way and at the same time as the Earth.
- The Moon and the Earth formed from the same material.
- The Moon formed by fission from the forming Earth.
13. What is the primary chemical constituent of the present day
- carbon dioxide
- carbon dioxide and nitrogen
- hydrogen, helium, methane, ammonia, nitrogen, and neon
- nitrogen and oxygen
14. What statement concerning volcanoes on Mars is true?
- They are larger than those on Earth.
- They indicate that the core of Mars is much larger than the
- They are probably due to meteoric impact.
- They are the source of oxygen in Mars' atmosphere.
- They may actually just be mountains.
15. What does the presence of a planetary magnetic field suggest
its structure? (Choose best answer)
- Its core is probably composed of solid iron.
- It has a rocky surface, with magnetism locked up in rocks as iron
- It probably has a molten iron core, and the rotation of the
- The planet has been magnetized in the past by some passing object.
- The planet has been disrupted at some time, so that material from
interior has gotten out.
16. Why is the Earth's atmosphere so different from that of the
- Planetary atmospheres are entirely due to materials outgassed
interior, so the Earth must have just erupted different elements.
- The Earth is less massive, so the other elements seen elsewhere
on Earth because they escaped from its weak gravity.
- On the Earth, water dissolved the carbon dioxide and plants made
- Mars and Venus have more iron, and this plus oxygen made rust.
- We haven't got a clue.
17. What is the primary reason why Mercury is difficult to see from
- It is a very small planet.
- It is very faint.
- It rotates very slowly.
- It always appears near the bright Sun.
- Its orbit is highly elliptical.
18. Which of the following observations of Mars indicates the
of annual seasons?
- Plant growth has been detected in the springtime.
- In each hemisphere, the polar cap changes in size as Mars orbits
- Volcanism shows a seasonal dependence.
- Seasonal floods have been detected.
19. What is the evidence for high winds on Mars?
- The Martian probes photographed rippled sand dunes.
- Theory predicts it.
- The slow rotation implies one side is strongly heated, and the
difference drives strong winds.
- Being farther from the Sun and thus colder, there must be winter
with strong winds.
20. Which surface feature has been discovered on both Mercury and
- large volcanoes
- river beds
- large wrinkled ridges
21. Which planet's rotational characteristics differs most
from that of all the other terrestrial planets?
22. Venus's clouds are observed to contain substantial amounts of
- water vapor.
- sulfuric acid.
- carbon monoxide.
23. Why is Mars red?
- Its surface rocks are highly radioactive.
- Because of the way sunlight refracts through the Martian
- Because of dust lifted into the atmosphere by Mar's high winds.
- Its distance from the Sun keeps it cool and therefore red.
- Iron oxide on the surface
24. Why does the Earth's atmosphere have a higher fraction of carbon
dioxide than the atmosphere of Mars?
- It formed that way.
- Earth's volcanoes have emitted large amounts of carbon dioxide.
- Earth's high escape velocity has held onto its carbon dioxide.
- Animals on Earth give off carbon dioxide.
- The statement is wrong; Mars has more atmospheric carbon dioxide.
25. The temperature at Mercury's north and south poles are expected
- about the same as at the equator.
- greater than at the equator.
- less than at the equator.
26. Which of the following observations provide evidence that Mars
substantial water in the past?
- channels that meander over the surface
- small pools of water today indicate more water in the past
- large amounts of water vapor in the atmosphere
- Mars's satellites, which consist primarily of water ice
- Viking spacecraft observations of high soil moisture
27. Why do astronomers think that Venus lacks the small craters
on other terrestrial planets?
- all the small impacting bodies had fallen into the Sun in earlier
- space contains only large impacting bodies and no small ones.
- small bodies burned up while entering the planet's atmosphere.
- Venus's magnetic field shielded the planet from impact from small
- both C and D contribute to the low number of small craters.
28. What evidence is there for active volcanism on Venus?
- direct observation of eruption with telescopes from Earth
- direct observation of eruption with orbiting spacecraft
- direct observation of eruption by landers on the surface
- variable amounts of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere
- radioactivity on the surface around certain mountains that look
29. What is thought to have caused Mercury's cliffs?
- compression and shrinking during the crust's cooling
- extremely large seismic events, which cracked open the hard
- extensive lava flows early in the planet's history when the crust
- the motion of continental plates
- large impact events
30. Why is Venus' lack of a magnetic field not too surprising?
- Venus has a slow rotation period.
- Venus shows retrograde rotation.
- Venus lacks active volcanism.
- Venus has a radioactive surface.
- Venus has a high escape velocity.
31. Which planet has the largest fraction of its volume located in
- none of the above
32. Which terrestrial planet, in addition to Earth, has a
amount of lightning activity in its atmosphere?
- None other than Earth show observable lightning.
33. Which of the following is a piece of evidence that Venus is not
subject to strong erosional processes?
- Venus's atmosphere is nearly constant and unchanging.
- Fault regions do not appear eroded.
- Radar observations show its volcanoes to show sharp peaks.
- Its surface rocks have sharp edges.
34. What is Olympus Mons?
- a giant shield volcano on Mars
- the tallest mountain on Mercury
- one of Mars's moons
- a mountain on Venus that is higher than Mt. Everest
- a volcano discovered on Mercury
35. Which one of the following surface features is found on all
planets and the Moon?
- large volcanoes
- river beds
- large wrinkled ridges