There are two basic types of calibration frames you probably want to take; darks and flats.

Dark frames are exposures with the CCD
- Dome Flat screens are mounted in the dome.
- Lights are on the telescope. First turn on power strip, then push button to turn on lights. Lights can be dimmed. The lights are much brighter in R and I (and, obviously, CBB) than in B and V, so either set the light brighter for B and V, or take longer flats for these two filters.

- RF tube needs to be covered from inside to take darks with lights on.
- Allow ~15 for the camera to cool completely before beginning to take calibration frames.

The above image shows M51 without calibration frames. Hot pixels, dust motes, vignetting, and other noise are very apparent.